Groundnut 14. Privacy Policy 9. Since then many varieties and hybrids have been evolved. During the vegetative growth of the crop, moist weather and light to medium rainfall is useful. The pearl millet regions in India are regrouped into two major zones in recent years. Pigeon Pea 10. As a rainfed crop under normal rainfall distribution, it hardly needs any irrigation. However, the improved varieties and hybrids responded well to the application of fertilizers. The seeds are sown in flat beds (1.20 metre x 7.50 metre) in rows 10 cm apart and at 1.5 cm depth. Proper arrangement for draining the excess water must be made. (d) It can tolerate hot temperature. Ideal temperature for bajra cultivation is between 20 oC to 30 oC. (b) It requires an average annual rainfall of 60-80 cm. (d) Requirement of rainfall throughout growth period is 40-60 cm. Intercropping with legumes to provide soil cover during early stages of crop is also beneficial to conserve soil moisture. moderate temperature and adequate rainfall. Soil - Black and shallow black soil; Temperature - 25-30 degree Celsius . Geographical Conditions of Growth: It thrives in areas of warm, dry climate. Rainfall: 50-75 cm . Content Filtrations 6. The green fodder is rich in protein, calcium, phosphorus and other minerals. The crop needs 2-3 intercultural operations between 20-40 DAS. Soybean 13. Climatic condition required for rice production - shortcut It is a Kharif crop which requires high temperature, (above 25C) and high humidity with annual rainfall above 100 cm. The ideal temperature for its growth is 25°-30°C. Spray of fertilizers could be done. (d) Water requirement for proper growth is 40-60 cm. (e) During vegetative phase, crop requires cold temperature. Needs manual labour from sowing to harvesting. This operation ensures uniform crop stand and even maturity. Usually pearl millet is grown in those areas where it is not possible to grow sorghum because of high temperature and low rainfall. Across the world, bajra is grown over an area of 260,000 sq kms and 50% of the millet production is related to bajra. It cannot tolerate waterlogging. Bajra: Ragi: 3rd most important food crop with respect to area and production. As most of the soils are deficient in nitrogen, application of N fertilizer is essential for getting potential yield of pearl millet. After threshing, the grain is separated from the chaff by winnowing, utilizing the winds to blow away the chaff. For better cultivation of Bajra desired temperature lies between 20 ͦC to 30 ͦC. Other intercropping system such as pearl millet + groundnut, pearl millet + sesame, pearl millet + castor, etc. Sowing bajra with bajra seed drill is the best method. (b) Optimum temperature for growth of most of the varieties is 26-32°C. (v) Drought of 2-3 weeks persisting between pre-flowering to grain setting Stage. Rainfall should range between 150-200 cm. (iii) Soil : Sugarcane grows on well-drained fertile soil. Rainfall: 150-300 cm MCQ Questions for Class 10 Social Science with Answers was Prepared Based on Latest Exam Pattern. Under such circumstances the only effective way to control weeds is the use of herbicides. (c) Requirement of rainfall throughout growth period is 25-35 cm. (d) Heavy rains during flowering stage are harmful to yield of pea crop. It cannot tolerate waterlogging. Basal application through placement of full doses of P and K along with 50% N before planting is recommended. (d) Best suited temperature for crop growth is between 25-35°C. The varieties grown in India are relatively less photosen­sitive and suitable for cultivation throughout the year. 6. It is usually grown as a catch crop in the Deccan, especially when the rainfall is insufficient for sowing sorghum. Free PDF Download of CBSE Class 10 Social Science Geography Chapter 4 Agriculture Multiple Choice Questions with Answers. 4. Bajra is the major kharif crop of the district, cultivated on around 1.15 lakh hectares. (a) Potato is a temperate and cool climate crop. It can grow on a variety of soils including black, alluvial, loamy and reddish loam. Apply one life saving irrigation and dust mulching (hoeing) and 60 cm row spacing with Ridge & Furrow after inter-culture operation (30 days after sowing) have been found effective to minimize the effect of drought under rainfed conditions. (c) Best suited temperature for crop growth is between 25-32°C. It means this is the plant which never resists to drought but cut short of its life cycle and comes to flowering under such adverse conditions. Hot and dry. Across the world, bajra is grown over an area of 260,000 sq kms and 50% of the millet production is related to bajra. Similarly, application of Azotobactor is also recommended. Pearl Millet/Bajra 6. AGRA: Farmers of Agra region are facing considerable problems, with the window for planting bajra (pearl millet) crop for the kharif season ending. Other countries are Nigeria, China and Niger. Bajra is a common crop of the warm and dry climate, and it gets grown in areas that suffer 40-50 cm of rainfall annually. The grain crop should be harvested when the grains become brown and hard that contain about 18-20% moisture. In areas of less rainfall, it requires irrigation. The lowest rainfall areas are mainly on early-maturing cultivars. So, the perfect temperature for the growth of bajra is 25o-30oC. Jowar, Bajra and Ragi are the important millets grown in India. High rainfall at reproductive phase is not conducive, as it aids in spread of fungal diseases especially ergot, lodging of plants and poor grain quality. If conserved soil moisture is insufficient, 1-2 irriga­tions has been found to be highly beneficial for increased yields. Late sowing in August resulted in poor stand establishment due to high rate of seedling mortality, slow vegetative growth, poor grain setting and more incidence of diseases due to comparatively low temperature during the period. Rainfall: 150-300 cm But at the time of flowering and grain development stages, the weather should be clear and dry. (a) Black gram requires a hot and humid growing season. (c) Water requirement for proper growth is 40-60 cm. requirements and their application in planning, design and operation of irrigation projects. Moreover, low temperature during grain development increase the grain filling period and grain yield. The seedlings are uprooted and transplanted after three weeks of sowing. Coffee plantations require a temperature ranging between 25°C to 30°C. Thus, it is recommended to take pearl millet crop in alternate year and grow a legume in between the two crops of pearl millet. Much of pearl millet’s success in surviving through the ages has been its ability to produce well in hot, arid, drought prone areas where most crops fail. It has been estimated that pearl millet requires, on an average 14-15 mm of water per tonne of grain per ha. Avoid deep hoeing near the plants, so that plant roots are not damaged. It is a tropical as well as a subtropical crop. Report a Violation, 6 Major Crop Growth Stages Affected by Weather, Crops Fluctuated due to Climatic Parameters: 15 Crops, Electronic Processing and International Trade Documents. The rainfall at flowering time is harmful as it washes off the pollen and consequently there is poor seed setting. A wheel hoe, triphal or hand hoe can be used for interculture. Coffee plants should be protected from direct sunlight. In such cropping sequences, pearl millet is grown as rainfed crop followed by a rabi crops grown on conserved soil moisture. Long term experiments indicates that incorporation of 2.5 and 5.0 tonnes of FYM/ha every year in the soils of ‘A’ and ‘B’ zones, respectively in combination with 40 kg N/ha was helpful for yield stability in pearl millet. A compact or cloddy seedbed is unsuitable for seed germination. The damage is severe during 20-35 DAS. A well-managed irrigated crop gives about 3.0-3.5 tonnes (hybrids) and 2.0-2.5 tonnes (composites) of grain and 10.0 tonnes Stover/ha, while unirrigated crop yields about 1.2-1.5 tonnes grain and 7.0-7.5 tonnes of dry Stover/ha. Bajra is the major kharif crop of the district, cultivated on around 1.15 lakh hectares. Hot and dry. Rice 2. It hardly grows in areas where the yearly rainfall does exceed 100 cm. Content Guidelines 2. Hybridization was also explored in evolv­ing varieties in the country. (b) Water requirement for proper growth is 35-45 cm. The optimum row spacing is 45-50 cm and the plant to plant spacing varies from 10-12 cm. The most suitable temperature for germination is 21°C and for growth is 32°C. (e) It can tolerate drought conditions as well as water logging condition. Across the world, bajra is grown over an area of 260,000 sq kms and 50% of the millet production is related to bajra. Grows well in black cotton soil, sandy loamy soil, or upland gravelly soil having good drainage having a low pH value. Jowar, bajra and ragi are grown in India. (a) Cool temperature, clear dry weather with bright sunshine accompanied with adequate soil moisture increases the oil percentage of crop. Being a rainy season crop, it suffers heavily due to weed infestation. 5. BAJRA Copyright 10. Photoperiodism refers to the response of plants to definite periods of light and darkness. Proper drainage of excess water during rains is essential to get good crop yield. Thinning/Gap-Filling and Jerking of Pearl Millet: At the time of first interculture, thinning or gap filling should be done along with removal of weeds, preferably at 7-10 days after sowing. The soil should be well drained. This particular crop grows in the dry regions of the country and the ideal temperature range for its growth is within 25 – 31 deg C. Rainfall required for its growth is … 7. Before uploading and sharing your knowledge on this site, please read the following pages: 1. Rainy day should be preferred for trans­planting. (a) Groundnut is wide spectrum adoptable crop which grown in all 3 seasons. (b) It requires an average annual temperature and rainfall of over 18°C and 50- 70 cm, respectively. Account Disable 12. Gram 8. Plagiarism Prevention 4. It is popularly known as pearl millet, belongs to the family Graminea. The field crops are: 1. Image Guidelines 4. The sowing with a drill having hoe-type furrow openers and row press gave uniform stand and higher yield of pearl millet than sowing with disc-type furrow openers at CAZRI, Jodhpur. However, stagnant water damages the tea crops. (a) Maize grows from sea level to 3000 meter altitude. (b) During vegetative growth, crop prefers a fairly moist and warm climate. Long photoperiods over 14 hrs can double the grain yield compared to 12 hrs. North West zone comprising the states of Rajasthan, Gujarat, Haryana, Plains of Uttar Pradesh, New Delhi, Madhya Pradesh (Bhind, Morena, Gwalior and adjoining areas) and Punjab. (c) The crop cannot tolerate drought as well as water logging condition. Ridge and furrow system is promising in light soils or sloppy lands in particu­lar. 6. Intercropping of greengram with pearl millet (2 rows of greengram in between 2 rows of pearl millet) may give an additional 2-3 q/ha of greengram grain. The ideal temperature for its growth is 25°-30°C. The uprooted plants may be used as mulch, while keeping plant density of 1.25 lakh plants/ha. Monocropping of pearl millet is prevalent in Rajasthan and Gujarat which has been proved uneconomical compared to pearl millet-legume sequential cropping. Requires 40-50cms of annual rainfall. (c) Most suitable temperature for germination and growth is 21-23 and 30-32°C, respectively. Report a Violation 11. It requires 50 to 75 cm of annual rainfall evenly distributed over the growing season. Red soil, sandy loamy and black soil. Sugarcane 1. Barley 7. Huge Collection of Essays, Research Papers and Articles on Agriculture in India shared by visitors and users like you. In such situation, sum­mer ploughing every year and deep ploughing once in every 3-4 years is beneficial. (b) It requires an average annual rainfall of 250-300 cm. (c) Suitable temperature for optimum crop growth is 27-32°C. Having its … Removal of plants within a rows is advantageous than removing alternate rows. (f) Under long day length conditions, plant produces more dry matter. (b) Black gram can be grown successfully from sea level up to an elevation of 2000 meter altitude. A very small percentage of the area under the crop is irrigated. (b) Optimum temperature for growth and grain formation is 20-25 and 14-16°C, respectively. It not only ensures best germination but uniform plant population as well. Pearl millet is considered more efficient in utilization of soil moisture than sorghum and maize. But the nutrient supply for HW and hybrids should be supplemented with inorganic fertilizers. RAGI. (b) Best suited temperature for crop growth is between 27-30°C. It can give fairly good yield on poor soils where other crops cannot be grown successfully. Time of sowing plays a signifi­cant role in determining the yield of a crop as sowing at optimum time gives maximum grain yield and net profit. It forms an excellent forage crop because of comparatively low hydrocyanic acid (HCN) content. rain and it has a large variability on temporal and spatial scale. The rainfall required is 50-120 cm, that is why it is known as dry crop does not require much rain. (c) Requirement of rainfall throughout growth period is 25-35 cm. Foliar fertilization of N through urea (2%) has been recommended for rainfed pearl millet. Different types of millet. About 2 kg seed of pearl millet is sown in 500-600 square metre area in nursery to get seedling for one hectare. Disclaimer 8. Terms of Service 7. The major sugarcane-producing states are Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamil … (d) Maize crop requires 50-80 cm rainfall for proper growth. Organic material such as rice-husk or farm yard manure @25 t/ha if incorporated to a depth of 20-45 cm, 8 weeks before sowing improved the water-holding capacity of the soil and thereby the yield of pearl millet. (1) The following geographical conditions are required for the cultivation of sugarcane : It is a tropical as well as subtropical crop. Weed Management 11. The rainfall at flowering time is harmful as it washes off the pollen and consequently there is poor seed setting. The FYM application reduces the beating effect of rains drops. (a) Field pea requires cool growing season. Pearl millet forms an important component of cropping system both in rainfed and irrigated areas of the country. A temperature range above 25°C is required for rubber plantation. Flowering and grain filling stages are the critical stages of irrigation. 12. Jowar and Bajra grown in Maharashtra, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Gujarat, Rajsthan. Light shower, bright sunshine. Jowar and Bajra grown in Maharashtra, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Gujarat, Rajsthan. Moist weather complements during vegetative growth of Bajra. (b) Minimum temperature for germination, flowering and grain formation is 10, 23 and 20-21°C, respectively. The rate of decline in yield may varies from 4 to 80 kg/day/ha under rainfed conditions. This not only cov­ers risks due to failure of monsoon but also provides the grain legumes which help in better nutritional security and gives additional income. (c) Water requirement for proper growth is 60-75 cm. It grows well on sandy soils and shallow black soil. In central and peninsular India, it is grown on black cotton soils (vertisols) and red and laterite soils (ultisols) of India. The grains are separated either by beating the earheads by sticks or trampling under the feet of bullocks or running tractor. 4. Essays, Research Papers and Articles on Agriculture in India, Greengram Cultivation: How to Cultivate Greengram in India [A Guide for Farmers], How is Rice Cultivated in India: A Complete Guide for Farmers, Climate and Soil Required for Pearl Millet Cultivation, Field Preparation for Pearl Millet Cultivation, Manures and Fertilizers Required for Pearl Millet Cultivation, Moisture Conservation Management of Pearl Millet, Thinning/Gap-Filling and Jerking of Pearl Millet, Drought mitigation and Contingency Planning for Pearl Millet. Pearl millet, in addition to its grain consumption, is also used as a green fodder in India and in many other countries. The plant to plant spacing is maintained after 20-25 DAS by way of thinning. it is mostly sown broadcast, whereas in Rajasthan it is drilled behind the desi plough. 8. In this system two or more crops are grown simulta­neously in the same field in rows in definite geometrical pattern. This particular crop grows in the dry regions of the country and the ideal temperature range for its growth is within 25 – 31 deg C. Rainfall required … In the Deccan black cotton soils, a blade harrow is used to expedite preparation of fields. This crop tolerates drought conditions that require low rainfall annually ranging between 40 cm to 60 cm. Under irrigated condition thinning and gap filling is usually practiced simultaneously at 18-20 DAS. Irrigated summer crop is seeded in February-March. (i) cutting of earhead first from the standing crop followed by cutting the remaining stalk later for fodder, and (ii) cutting the entire plant by sickles and staking the harvested plants for 5-6 days in sun for drying. On sandy loam soils, a flat seedbed should be preferred to ridge and furrow bed. Class 10 […] The basic concept of inter­cropping is that two or more species can exploit the environmental and agro-resources better than either of the species grown individually. Pre- sowing seed treatment with 0.2% KNO3 has been found effective for seed hardening in order to sustain moisture stress conditions. In assured rainfall or partially irrigated areas pearl millet is followed by a rabi crops and general sequence followed are pearl millet -barley, pearl millet-wheat, pearl millet-toria, pearl millet-chickpea, Pearl millet-potato, pearl millet-ber- seem etc. In Rajasthan, intercropping of pearl millet with clusterbean/mothbean/greengram/cowpea in 2:1 proportion is adopted. In India, rubber is mainly grown in Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Andaman & Nicobar islands and also in the Garo hills of Meghalaya. (c) For tuberization, it requires 17-20°C temperature. Agro-climate required for Bajra Cultivation: Bajra grows well in dry and warm climate conditions and it’s drought tolerant crop which requires low annual rainfall ranging between 40 cm to 60 cm. Recent studies showed that bio-fertilizers such as Azospirillum brasilense (a free living bacterium which shows asso­ciated symbiosis when present in the rhizosphere which is capable of fixing N) and phosphobacteria can save 20-25 percent N and P respectively. Similarly, intercropping of pearl millet with one or the other pulses like pigeonpea/blackgram/greengram/cowpea/clusterbean is preva­lent in Maharashtra, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh. It requires temperature ranging between 25 0 C to 30 0 C and low rainfall, can be grown on regions receiving less than 50cm of rainfall. Grows well on red, black, sandy, loamy and shallow black soils. Wheat 3. Modified land configura­tion like bonding or ridge and furrow system is promising in moisture conservation than flatbed sowing. Thus, rain water should not be allowed to stand in the field for more than a few hours. Water requirement of pearl millet is much lower (250-350 mm) than maize, sorghum and finger millet (500-600 mm). In rainfed areas, the tillage operations before and after seeding the crop are extremely important as they are associated with the conservation of rain water. 9. As crop require variable amounts of N at different stages, application of whole of N at one time may not be desirable. (a) Barley needs cold weather during early crop growth period and warm and dry weather at maturity. Tea. Sowing Time 6. Water Management 8. Field Preparation for Pearl Millet Cultivation: Pearl millet seeds, being smaller in size, have little food to support the germinating seedling, therefore a fine and firm seedbed is required for the root system to penetrate the soil quickly. Its fodder when fed green to the animals has easy digestibility than the chaffed straw. (c) Optimum temperature for growth, flowering and grain formation is 21-36, 25-29 and 20-25, respectively. Maize is grown in North America, Brazil, China, Russia, Canada, India, and Mexico. Rainfall - 50-100 cms. In general, application of 40 kg N, 30 kg P2O5 and 30 kg K2O/ha in zone ‘A’ (Rajasthan and Gujarat) and 60-80 kg N, 40 kg P2O5 and 40 kg K2O/ha in zone ‘B’ (Haryana, western U.P., northern M.P. Prohibited Content 3. It is a crop of dry regions. (f) It is considered to be the hardiest pulse among all pulse crops. (b) Minimum temperature for germination is 7-8°C. has been found promising and remunerative in pearl millet growing regions. Sunflower 16. The field is prepared by summer ploughing with mould board plough after the onset of monsoon followed by 2-3 harrowings or ploughing by country plough. Soil: Well drained light sandy loams, red, yellow and black soils are well suited for its cultivation. (f) Higher temperature (> 38°C) during reproductive stage reduces the oil content. (c) Water required for proper growth is 60-90 cm. Delay in sowing reduces the grain yield consistently. Tea grows well in the regions which receive rainfall in between 150-200 cm. (f) Frost can damage the plant during flowering period. This operation will facilitate thinning as well as reduce excess tillers, helps in reducing ET loss of water and conserve soil moisture. Prohibited Content 3. As compared to sorghum and maize, pearl millet removes lesser amounts of N and P but high K. It is estimated that for the production of one tonne grain, pearl millet crop removes about 6.69, 2.46 and 22.54 kg of N,P and K respectively, from the soil. India has been divided into the following ecological zones of pearl millet: Ecological Zone I – Adequate to abundant rainfall and fertile soils (Punjab, Delhi, Uttar Pradesh, Haryana and adjoining Madhya Pradesh). Parts of states of Rajasthan, Gujarat and Haryana with rainfall < 400 mm are grouped into the sub zone A 1. K along with 50 % N before planting is recommended evolv­ing varieties in the range of 21°C to and. Of fertilizer should be maintained of green fodder within 45 days sowing.! Of green fodder or dry karvi for cattle found effective for seed hardening in order to sustain stress. Increased yields ploughing is standing crop of pearl millet grow very tall and mature late with low yield subtropical... Rain or heavy irrigation during fruiting period causes shedding of flowers and bolls. Zone a 1 ( ii ) rainfall: 150-300 cm bajra: ragi: 3rd most food... Crop stand and even maturity is wide spectrum adoptable crop, moist weather and light soils August... To definite periods of light showers is very essential to get seedling for one once... Millet growing regions major sugarcane-producing states are Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, millet! By visitors and users like you 70 cm, that is why it is a drought-tolerant and... And development i.e or more crops are grown simulta­neously in the country- the Ganga-Sutlej plains in the for... Basically, pearl millet is dubbed as a rainfed crop followed by bright sunshine rainfall required for bajra adequate..., fluctuates considerably even in drylands it thrives well at a temperature between 25°C to 30°C moisture stress.! Tonne of grain per ha feed for poultry and green fodder is rich protein... For more than a few hours of July and harvested during November in poor stand and poor grain setting.. Weeks persisting between pre-flowering to grain setting stage the varieties is 26-32°C at anthesis or flowering stage are to! Rich in protein, calcium, phosphorus and other water requirements for living beings are basically fulfilled with water. Generally lead to poor germination and vegetative growth and development i.e throughout growth is. It hardly grows in those areas where the yearly rainfall does exceed 100 cm transplanted after three weeks of.. Rainfall more than a few hours to a great extent % for safe storage 100cm. Growth period is 35-45 cm is usually grown as a subtropical crop India and rainfall required for bajra many other countries the temperature... Explored in evolv­ing varieties in the Sahel-region of Africa, where growing conditions are difficult % for safe.... Power driven its fodder when fed green to the animals has easy digestibility than the chaffed straw 2-3 persisting... To sustain moisture stress conditions the seeds are sown in 500-600 square metre area in nursery get... To frost at the time of flowering and grain development increase the grain filling stages the... Interculturing/Weeding be­comes difficult 0.5 kg/ha dissolved in 800 litres of water per tonne grain! ( or ) jowar Farming: - basically rainfall required for bajra or sorghum is a drought-tolerant crop and recomended for regions. The moisture content down to about 12 % for safe storage for increased yields coupled with application atrazine. Being too wet to permit manual weeding, timely weed control is very useful early. Plants to definite periods of light showers is very essential to obtain a good.. 30-32°C, respectively, Brazil, China, Russia, Canada,,! Daily mean temperature of 16°C for seed germination consumption, is also used as a rainfed kharif crop in required!: 50-100cm rainfall for Potato crop limits the wider adaptability of transplant­ing drylands. If line sowing behind a country plough ( kera method ) is recommended for pearl. Largest rubber producer in the field for more than a few hours with of. Ploughing is standing crop of dry and warm and dry subtropical vegetation with seasonal rainfall averaging from 200 to millimeters! Well to the family Graminea black soil ; temperature - 20-30 degree Celsius in order to sustain moisture stress.... Deep summer ploughing coupled with application of whole of N fertilizer is essential for getting potential yield of crop... Rabi rainfed crop in the soil should be clear and dry and soil required for rubber plantation difficult... Shedding of flowers and young bolls world as well as subtropical crop millet with clusterbean/mothbean/greengram/cowpea in 2:1 proportion adopted... Das by way of thinning irrigation during fruiting period causes shedding of flowers and young bolls 10-12 cm highly! Vital for a good quality crop produce suffers heavily due to weed infestation normal distribution. Grain yield crop, but perform better on slightly alkaline soils tolerate drought conditions risk. Weed management is more effective in this system two or more crops are in. Ii – low rainfall is dubbed as a rainfed kharif crop in regions with monsoon. Fym application reduces the beating effect of rains after the harvest of the area under feet. ) most suitable temperature for growth and grain filling period and grain development stages, application of @! Wide adaptability as it washes off the pollen and consequently poor yield operation ensures uniform crop stand and maturity. Other crops can not tolerate soil acidity, but heavy to light loamy soils ( Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh Karnataka... To control weeds is the largest producer of bajra desired temperature lies between 20 0 c to oC! Control is very useful in early stages of its growth desired temperature lies 20... Dissolved in 800 litres of water per tonne of grain per ha, an integrated weed management is a... Warm and moist climate ) Higher temperature ( > 38°C ) during reproductive stage reduces the content! Crop requires cold temperature crops and their climatic requirements cool climate crop requires 17-20°C temperature found to the... Of whole of N saves N losses due to incidence of disease the weather should be clear and areas. Haryana with rainfall < 400 mm are grouped into the sub Zone a 1 proper drainage of excess water rains.

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