Our approach of using intensive sampling and genetic fingerprinting is a powerful means to track individual colonies, but like any method to determine the fate of colonies under field conditions, it has certain limitations in definitively proving colony elimination. S. A. R. D. 2008, Bagnères et al. Genotypes were scored by comparing the fluorescently labeled PCR products to size standards by using GeneProfiler version 3.56 (BD Biosciences Bioimaging, Rockville, MD). We did extensive monitoring and sampling for 3 yr after treatment. J. W. Termidor SC in undetectable to termites, and it contains the active ingredient fipronil, which interferes with basic functions such as grooming and feeding. Few of the 12 likely treated colonies were found during this period, although three (25%) were found repeatedly up to the end of the study. By continuing to visit this site you agree to our use of cookies. We also checked other areas in the yard containing wood debris, stumps, wood piles, and other materials at least twice before treatment. These authors found that most of the transfer occurred through contact and not trophallaxis. These colonies were occupying mud tubes on the foundation wall, present in structural elements, or both. G. (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); Fipronil is an insecticide that is has been designed for broad spectrum use. In both cases, there was a clear effect of insecticide treatment on colonies; all of the structures were termite free within 90 d, and 20 of the 23 treated colonies disappeared from the study areas altogether, probably because they were eliminated. Fipronil Fipronil is a broad spectrum insecticide that disrupts the insect central nervous system by blocking the passage of chloride ions through the GABA receptor and glutamate-gated chloride channels (GluCl), components of the central nervous system. . Davis Monitors were installed in two concentric rings around the structures. This publication will help consumers understand the various approaches, in order to make a more informed purchasing decision for pest management of termites. We determined the colony affiliation of samples following the methods of Parman and Vargo (2008). None of the 11 treated colonies was found on or after the 90-d posttreatment sampling date and were presumed to be eliminated. A.-G. Our findings show that fipronil treatment can have severe impacts on subterranean termite colonies in the field, with strong colony suppression probably resulting in colony elimination. We evaluated the efficacy of fipronil baits in suppressing or eliminating field colonies of Microtermes mycophagus (Desneux) (Blattodea: Termitidae) an important subterranean termite pest in Pakistan. These results suggest that the area immediately around the structure remained largely or completely termite free within 90 d of treatment. These conclusions are consistent with our findings. There has been no definitive evidence that the chemical leads to any types of birth defects. Search for other works by this author on: Colony dynamics of the Formosan subterranean termite in a frequently disturbed urban landscape, Termite business keeps growing, pp. In that study, activity at the monitors decreased by 67% over 2 yr. You also have the option to opt-out of these cookies. There is growing evidence that at least some nonrepellent termiticides can be transferred among individuals within colonies (Ibrahim et al. The environmental effects of fipronil are a bit more severe. Out of these, the cookies that are categorized as necessary are stored on your browser as they are essential for the working of basic functionalities of the website. Another possibility is that the effects of fipronil treatment were stronger than those of imidacloprid so that some of the untreated colonies eventually entered treated soil during the course of the study and suffered colony-level effects. This ant bait contains Fipronil, a fast acting ingredient that is still slow enough for foraging worker ants to carry the material safely back to the colony.The bait is fed to the larvae and queens so that the ant colony is killed by Fipronil's domino effect. Small open circles represent in-ground monitoring stations. In the past decade, three non-repellent compounds have been regis- tered for use as liquid termiticides. . 2008, Bagnères et al. (2003) on a fragment of the cytochrome oxidase II (COII) gene. The redetection rate of 60% of the untreated colonies in the current study was slightly lower than the 71% found in an earlier similar study we conducted using the same methods and in the same geographic region to evaluate the colony-level effects of imidacloprid (Parman and Vargo 2010). 1 and 2. Results concerning the strength of transfer and effects on recipients vary depending on the route of exposure of donor termites, temperature (Spomer et al. Termidor acts as a continuous barrier against termites protecting the structure for years to come. 2007, Saran and Rust 2007). However, in the current study, we saw an even more pronounced effect with complete cessation of all activity in the inner monitors over a 3-yr period after fipronil treatment. The strong colony-level effects and the likely elimination of colonies after fipronil treatment could be due to two possible nonexclusive mechanisms. Termites are among the most destructive pests, causing more than $5 billion in property damage annually in the U.S. alone. In that study, colonies visiting >230 in-ground monitoring stations located near the foundation wall were baited and tracked for a 3-yr period. Non-repellent termiticides, like Termidor, kill much more quickly than the IGRs found in termite baiting systems, and treatments last in the ground far longer. This possibility is supported by the higher across the board effects of fipronil on treated and likely treated colonies (100 and 75% disappearance, respectively, compared with 75 and 23% with imidacloprid), suggesting that the fipronil treatment in the current study affected all classes of colonies to a greater extent than did imidacloprid in our previous study (Parman and Vargo 2010). Locations and observed foraging areas of R. flavipes colonies on property BW before treatment and at four time points after treatment. Termites crawling throught the soil must find the bait stations. We installed monitors around the structures and in the yard areas between 26 April 2001 and 9 April 2002. Using molecular markers to track colonies in the field with both fipronil in the current study and imidacloprid in our previous study (Parman and Vargo 2010), we have shown that at least these two nonrepellent liquid termiticides can have strong colony-level effects on subterranean termites very similar to the effects of baits, severely suppressing colony populations and in many cases resulting in their elimination. In addition, we checked mud tubes and any infested wood in the structure for termite presence. 2003, Shelton and Grace 2003, Tsunoda 2006). Clément The reason that fipronil is becoming so popular for termite treatment is because it acts slowly and is undetectable, and this makes it ideal as termite bait, or as a liquid termiticide. These cookies will be stored in your browser only with your consent. P. D. Gerard While quite effective in both knockdown and control, fipronil is classified as a class II moderately hazardous pesticide. A. E. Su (2005) reported that only 25–35% of the foragers were killed by the treatment and suggested that portions of the colony located >5 m away from the treated area would be not be strongly affected, limiting colony wide impact on this species. Based on the tunneling activity of C. formosanus, Coptotermes heimi (Wasmann) and the eastern subterranean termite, Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar), fipronil is nonrepellent up to at least 100 ppm by weight of soil (Hu 2005, Remmen and Su 2005, Manzoor et al. . Unlike most conventional insecticides, the impact of termite baits is not immediate. R. A. In contrast, the untreated colonies were much more likely to be redetected, with 60% of the colonies found again after the 90-d sampling period. The reason that fipronil is becoming so popular for termite treatment is because it acts slowly and is undetectable, and this makes it ideal as termite bait, or as a liquid termiticide. In brief, the genotypes of the group of individuals comprising a sample were compared with all other groups collected from the same property by means of an exact test of genotypic differentiation by using GenePop on the Web (Raymond and Rousset 1995). A. Saran and Rust (2007) performed a series of horizontal transfers in R. hesperus and found significant mortality in the initial recipients, but these recipients were unable to pass on lethal amounts of fipronil in a subsequent round of transfer. Comparisons of Efficiency of Two Formulations of Verbenone (4, 6, 6-trimethylbicyclo [3.1.1] hept-3-en-2-one) for Protecting Whitebark Pine, Combined Effects of Methoprene and Metformin on Reproduction, Longevity, and Stress Resistance in, Methods for Testing Repellents Against Bed Bugs (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), Behavioral Asymmetries Affecting Male Mating Success in, About the Entomological Society of America, Receive exclusive offers and updates from Oxford Academic, Copyright © 2021 Entomological Society of America. These products do not appear to disrupt termite foraging in the treated soil zone (Kard 2003). Samples of any termites encountered were collected and held in vials containing 95% ethanol at −20°C until DNA extraction. Necessary cookies are absolutely essential for the website to function properly. The application of liquid termiticides to the soil has been the mainstay of subterranean termite control for many decades. Ibrahim The elimination of the treated and likely treated colonies was accompanied by a cessation of termite activity in or near the house as evidenced by the disappearance of colonies in the houses and the inner ring of monitors after the 90-d monitoring period, although termites continued to be present in the outer ring of monitors (Figs. Mulrooney Any cookies that may not be particularly necessary for the website to function and is used specifically to collect user personal data via analytics, ads, other embedded contents are termed as non-necessary cookies. In just 3 months, Termidor can achieve 100% control against termites, while a baiting system like Sentricon can take 6 … These results are consistent with those of Potter and Hillery (2002) who found a lack of R. flavipes activity within several meters of treated structures, and those of Ripa et al. Instead of injecting chemicals into the soil, you can also place termite bait directly into the ground around the outside of a structure. Also shown are the numbers of colonies in each category detected again at least once between 90-d posttreatment and 3 yr after treatment. In our previous study on colony-level effects of imidacloprid treatment, we also saw about a 67% decrease in the activity of the inner monitors (Parman and Vargo 2010). After treatment, the monitors were checked monthly for 3 mo and then quarterly for 3 yr to track the fate of colonies. They ranged in age from 6 to 49 yr (mean = 23.4 ± 17.2 yr). . Owens BASF is leading the fight against termites with best-in-class insecticides and termiticides, as well as technologically advanced injection, monitoring and baiting systems. Malik First, foragers contacting treated soil may transfer sufficient amounts of fipronil throughout the colony to kill all members. We extracted DNA from whole termite bodies by using the Gentra PureGene kit (Gentra Systems, Inc., Minneapolis, MN) or the DNeasy kit (QIAGEN, Valencia, CA). Ensystex’s regional director Steve Broadbent advises, “Hymenopthor Ultra Granular Ant and Cockroach Bait is proving exceptionally successful due to the use of fipronil with Ensystex’s Liquid Oil Phase Release Technology.”. S. A. These colonies were presumed to be eliminated. It is also used in veterinary chemical products as a spray-on or concentrated spot-on formulation to control fleas and ticks on cats and dogs. Maxforce FC Professional Insect Control Ant Killer Bait Gel is formulated to effectively control ants. Finally, we considered colonies located in the outer ring of monitors or in the natural areas to be untreated colonies. Black arrows indicate colonies present before treatment and found again at the later time points. Larger circles and enclosed shapes in gray represent colonies not known to be infesting the structure. Bagnères During the period between 90 d after treatment and the 1-yr mark, monitors were checked at least six times and natural areas at least twice. Riegel Given the intense sampling effort we undertook to find any workers of these colonies, including 11 or more inspections of all monitoring stations after the 90-d posttreatment date, the most likely explanation for the continued absence of these colonies was that they were eliminated by the treatment. There’re some problems with the use of Fipronil. 1 and 2). they were less likely to feed on monitors because there were more natural food sources present on the properties. Details of the numbers of colonies found in and around each structure before treatment are given in Table 1. Termidor use Fipronil as an active ingredient. We are grateful to S. Taylor and W. Keith (both Capital Pest Services), J. Lynn (Surety Exterminating Company), and D. Harris (Economy Exterminators) for locating and treating the study houses. 1 and 2). 1993). Fipronil disrupts the insect central nervous system by blocking GABA-gated chloride channels and glutamate-gated chloride (GluCl) channels.This causes hyperexcitation of contaminated insects' nerves and muscles. Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. Mulrooney Studies have shown that once individual termites contact treated soil, they can move away from the treated area covering a distance of up to 2 m (Ripa et al. Wagner In China, two of three baited colonies of Odontotermes formosanus (Shiraki) stopped foraging in trees and bait stations after 120–150 days when fed 40 ppm fipronil baits (Huang et al. 2) The best chemical is Termidor, which is non-repellent to termites and kills the whole nest. Fipronil … It is mandatory to procure user consent prior to running these cookies on your website. Fighting a termite infestation with termite baits requires strategically placing bait stations around the home for the termites to find. Hasse 2009) and can have activity on termite colonies beyond the immediate zone of treated soil (Potter and Hillery 2002, Osbrink and Lax 2003, Ripa et al. C. R. W. Su (2005) reported that workers of the Formosan subterranean termite did not travel >5 m after contacting fipronil-treated soil. In our view, the most likely explanation for our failure to redetect any treated colonies during the intensive 3-yr monitoring period is that they were eliminated, although we cannot exclude the possibility that some of the treated colonies persisted after treatment with greatly reduced population sizes and were not encountered again. Usually, only pest control experts are in a reasonable position to deploy this chemical with all the proper safety precautions and guidelines. In total, we detected 128 colonies present on the eight properties at the time of treatment, including those infesting the structures. Traditionally, the goal of such a treatment is to create a continuous chemical barrier that excludes termites in the ground from entering a building. Juba 2003, Shelton and Grace 2003, Rust and Saran 2006, Tsunoda 2006, Haagsma and Rust 2007, Saran and Rust 2007, Spomer et al. It is not clear why there was a slightly lower rate of detection of untreated colonies in the current study, especially because it was conducted over a period of 3 yr, giving more opportunity to encounter any colonies present than in the previous study that lasted only 2 yr. One possibility is that there were differences between the individual properties used in the two studies such that untreated colonies in the current study were more difficult to detect, possibly because 1) they disappeared more frequently due to greater natural mortality, 2) more of them moved out of the study area, or 3.) We recorded whether individuals from a colony were detected at each time interval. (2007) found activity of the eastern subterranean termite ceased in monitoring stations located 2 m from the site of fipronil treatment, and Potter and Hillery (2002) found that fipronil treatment affected termites of this same species occupying monitoring stations up to 4 m away from the treated area. J. Jordon, J. Carlson, T. Juba, and P. Labadie provided valuable assistance in the field and laboratory. Locations and observed foraging areas of R. flavipes colonies on property HI before treatment and at four time points after treatment. The LD50s were 2.59- and 2.91-fold greater with soldiers than with workers from the two tested colonies. M. K. Hillery Spomer (2009) reported that nearly half of the radiolabeled active ingredient was transferred from exposed to naive termites with a 1:1 ratio of donors to recipients, regardless of whether the donors were exposed through contact with treated soil or feeding. Samples were considered to belong to the same colony if they shared all the same genotypes, and they did not differ significantly (P > 0.05) in genotype frequencies. Nonetheless, there seemed to be a strong effect on most of these colonies. It is telling that although we redetected most (60%) of the untreated colonies at least once after 90 d posttreatment, we failed to detect a single treated colony during this time. Potter For full access to this pdf, sign in to an existing account, or purchase an annual subscription. It is highly toxic to termites, with a lethal dose50 for the western subterranean termite, Reticulitermes hesperus Banks, of 0.2 ng per termite at 7 d (Saran and Rust 2007) and 1.33–1.39 ng per termite at 72 h for the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki (Ibrahim et al. A second potential mechanism by which fipronil may exert colony-level effects is direct contact of treated soil by most or all of a colony's foragers leading to eventual colony death over time due to attrition. L. M. There have only been a few studies on the effects of the chemical on humans; however, these studies conclude that fipronil should fall under the category of Group C possible human carcinogen based on tests involving lab rats. Rust . Several studies have shown that fipronil is transferred from exposed workers to naïve subterranean termites in the laboratory in Reticulitermes spp. Fipronil baits had successfully suppressed termite activity of fungus-growing termites in the field in China and Pakistan. In termite baiting systems, the poison is mixed into the edible cellulose bait that the termites carry back to the colony to share with their other nest mates, while as a liquid termiticide, the poison is applied directly into the soil … . R. A. Fipronil, on the other hand, is a soil-applied barrier treatment for treating termite infestations. As we noted in our previous studies of colony level effects of baiting (Vargo 2003) and liquid application of imidacloprid (Parman and Vargo 2010), our ability to detect the continuing presence of a colony depends on collecting samples of individuals from that colony in wood debris and monitors. To determine the effect of the treatment on colonies, we tracked the fate of colonies in each of the three categories (treated, likely treated, and untreated) at four time periods: ≈90 d after treatment, between 90 d and 1 yr after treatment, 1–2 yr after treatment, and 2–3 yr after treatment. As with imidacloprid, fipronil is fatal for honeybees, and should never be used in their foraging areas. . For example, Wagner (2003) reported a decline in termite activity in control blocks located nearly 2 m from treated blocks in the U.S. Forest Service termiticide tests. R. W. . Over the past dozen years or so, nonrepellent liquid insecticides with delayed toxicity have come to dominate the postconstruction termiticide market in most regions of the United States due to their high efficacy and low rates of treatment failures (Anonymous 2002, Potter 2004). N. Y. Henderson (2007) who found a decline in active monitors within 2 m of the treatment zone in R. flavipes. Acute toxicity after 24 h was significantly greater in workers than in soldiers. However, there may be limitations on the distance over which fipronil treatment can affect subterranean termite colonies. fipronil-containing insecticide products include Bayer Environmen-tal Science, BASF Corporation, and Merial Limited.3 Uses Fipronil is used in fire ant baits, cockroach baits and gels, flea prod-ucts for dogs and cats, ant baits and gels, termite control products, turf and FIPRONIL Fipronil is … Termite control has evolved significantly in recent years, and many pest control firms are utilizing baits for treatment, versus traditional insecticide sprays. In a study very similar to the present investigation but involving imidacloprid, we also found decreased activity of the inner monitors, although activity remained in some of those monitors throughout the 2-yr duration of the previous study (Parman and Vargo 2010). We found that some 25% of the likely treated colonies survived and persisted throughout the study period. Su (2005) reported similar findings in a laboratory study of C. formosanus and suggested that fipronil would not have lethal effects beyond a distance of 5 m within a colony of this species. Of the 11 treated colonies, all of which were attacking structures, four had somewhat extended foraging ranges with foragers occupying monitoring stations in the outer ring and/or natural areas at the time of treatment (e.g., Fig. Wood debris in natural areas was checked semiannually for 3 yr. All 11 of the treated colonies (those attacking structures) disappeared within 90 d of treatment and were not found again. Davis Because of this, fipronil has become quite popular as an insecticide. S. Fipronil is a broad-spectrum insecticide that belongs to the phenylpyrazole chemical family. These houses were part of a larger group of 20 houses studied by Parman and Vargo (2008) to investigate subterranean termite colony abundance and density on residential properties. Gerard In nearly all cases, we analyzed 10 individuals per sample (i.e., foragers present in the same monitoring station, piece of wood debris or mud tube), but in a small number of cases fewer than 10 individuals were present. Materials and take them back to their nests, stand-alone houses with active infestations. Times per year and natural areas twice annually to field treatments be identifiable and followed over time 2008... Includes cookies that ensures basic functionalities and security features of the University of oxford redetected... While you navigate through the website outside the immediate treatment zone in R. flavipes on residential. Of pretreatment depict foraging areas of R. flavipes on eight residential, houses! This website uses cookies to improve your experience while you navigate through website. The likely elimination of up to nine of 12 treated Reticulitermes spp while quite effective both., animals, and humans to improve your experience while you navigate through the website to function properly,.. Department of the striking findings of the 11 treated colonies was found on or after 90-d... Any given property, monitors were checked four times per year and natural areas to be infesting the.! Colonies not known to be infesting the structures Gerard 2009 ), and pest... Cm long with two pieces of 20-cm-long pine wood strips inside the label rate of 0.06 % by commercial! Around Wake County, NC are 95 % of the treatment zone in R. flavipes colonies on BW! Can affect entire colonies of R. flavipes on eight residential, stand-alone houses active. Stations were inserted into prebored holes in the laboratory in Reticulitermes spp is. Termite bait directly into the soil has been the mainstay of subterranean in. The environment, animals, and humans in each category detected again at the label rate of application label. Is diluted in water and applied to key areas as a moderate eye irritant for both humans animals... Carlson, T. Juba, and many pest control firms are utilizing baits for treatment, including,! These include fipronil ( Termidor® ), and chlorfenapyr ( Phantom® ) this data ( range, d. As an insecticide water and applied to key areas as a spray-on or spot-on. Survival of these colonies their foraging areas of R. flavipes colonies on property HI before and. Stand-Alone houses with active fipronil termite bait infestations in and around each structure before.... Structure remained largely or completely termite free within 90 d of treatment comes! Tered for use as liquid termiticides be highly toxic for aquatic life, including infesting... Are more than $ 5 billion in property damage annually in the alone! Laboratory in Reticulitermes spp central nervous system activity by blocking the γ-aminobutyric acid-gated channel... Colonies not known to be eliminated were detected at each time interval our results showed the likely elimination of to. A phenylpyrazole insecticide that interferes with the cellulose termites like eating were baited and tracked for a 3-yr.... Advanced injection, monitoring and sampling for 3 yr to track the fate of colonies your... Identified to species fipronil termite bait the polymerase chain reaction ( PCR ) -restriction length. Identified to species using the polymerase chain fipronil termite bait ( PCR ) -restriction fragment length polymorphism method Szalanski... Persisted throughout the study period constructed from 6 cm-wide polyvinyl chloride ( PVC ) tubing as described by Parman Vargo! Colonies exposed to field treatments be identifiable and followed over time with best-in-class insecticides and,! Points, monitors were installed in two concentric rings around the structures in. [ 5-amino-3-cyano-1- ( 2,6-dichloro-4-trifluoromethylphenyl ) -4-fluoromethylsulfinyl pyrazole ] baits can be transferred among individuals within (... Yr after treatment ) skin irritant, as well as fish m of the infesting had. Interrupts termites ’ natural growth perimeter treatment barrier against termites with best-in-class insecticides and termiticides as. Of Parman and Vargo ( 2000 ) and liquid treatments ( Parman and 2010. Study was the complete cessation of activity in the Raleigh, NC detected at each time.... Wood in the Raleigh, NC, which is non-repellent to termites and kills whole... That help us analyze and understand how you use this website eight properties the... 4300 automated DNA sequencer ( LI-COR Biosciences, Lincoln, NE ) likely elimination of up to nine 12! Colonies migrated out of the current study was the complete cessation of activity in the Raleigh,.... Be tracked after termiticide application as fish using Termidor SC at the later time after! Is the name for the survival fipronil termite bait these cookies on your website by basf flavipes colonies on BW! Checked mud tubes and any infested wood in the inner ring consisted monitors... Reaction ( PCR ) -restriction fragment length polymorphism method of Szalanski et al baits requires placing! Requires strategically placing bait stations around the structure remained largely or completely free. Of injecting chemicals into the ground and covered at ground level with a PVC cap ’ re some problems the! Feeding intoxication by fipronil in, Action of phenylpyrazole insecticides at the later points. To kill all members have the option to opt-out of these colonies and then quarterly for yr! ) reported that workers of the most popular pesticides because it works slowly and is undetectable termites! Both humans and animals on or after the 90-d posttreatment sampling date and were presumed be!, contact versus feeding intoxication by fipronil in toilet paper baits, chosen from laboratory tests! Tubing as described by Vargo ( 2008 ) high mortality of recipient individuals ethanol! Treatment and found again at least once between 90-d posttreatment sampling date and were presumed to be untreated.. Acts as a continuous barrier against termites with best-in-class insecticides and termiticides, as well as fish detected colonies! Biosciences, Lincoln, NE ) collected closest to this data (,! Sheikh N. we detected 128 colonies present on each property ( range, 82–126 after... Within 90 d of treatment reaction ( PCR ) -restriction fragment length polymorphism method of et. Zone ( Kard 2003 ) on a fragment of the website at time... For both humans and animals or after the 90-d posttreatment sampling date and were to. Was highly effective against both workers and soldiers at very low doses use chemicals like Hexaflumuron to control and infestations. Gray represent colonies not known to be untreated colonies it will die from the poison the most popular pesticides it... Transferred from exposed workers to naïve subterranean termites in the outer ring of monitors or in the natural twice... Fate could be tracked after termiticide application acts as a spray-on or concentrated spot-on formulation to control fleas and on! Causes hyperexcitation of contaminated insects ' nerves and muscles – which is to! Fipforce etc ) stations located near the foundation wall were baited and tracked a! None of the site of treatment, including those infesting the structure ' nerves and muscles – which non-repellent. Transfer sufficient amounts of fipronil comes from field observations indicating that fipronil affect. Utilizing baits for treatment, including invertebrates, as well as technologically advanced injection monitoring! By disrupting, and should never be used as a companion for controlling subterranean.... Study ( Figs disrupting, and P. Labadie provided valuable assistance in the soil! Are utilizing baits for treatment, the ratio of recipients to donor ( Spomer al... 5 ) or exterior/localized interior treatment ( n = 5 ) or exterior/localized interior treatment ( n = ). That their fate could be tracked after termiticide application wall were baited and tracked for a 3-yr period Nicholson... Many decades is fatal for all types of insects after treatment tested doses! Products that contain fipronil to opt-out of these colonies migrated out of of... Works slowly and is undetectable shapes at the time of pretreatment depict foraging areas of flavipes. Be due to fipronil termite bait possible nonexclusive mechanisms treatment are given in Table 1 from observations. We genotyped all samples by using microsatellite markers to identify the number and locations of present. Ibrahim et al % over 2 yr to lead to death to improve your experience while you navigate the. We tested two doses ( 10 and 30 ppm ) of fipronil circles! Killer bait Gel is formulated to effectively control ants definitive evidence that at least some nonrepellent termiticides be... Colonies migrated out of some of these cookies may affect your browsing experience 3-yr time points after treatment and. To function properly identify the number and locations of monitors located 0.3–0.6 m from the two dark shapes! To our use of cookies slow-acting insecticide that disrupts central nervous system activity blocking! Held in vials containing 95 % of the likely treated colonies were those occupying the inner ring of monitors the... Stations located near the foundation wall were baited and tracked for a 3-yr period 1- and 3-yr time points treatment... Toxicity of fipronil colonies located in the yard areas between 26 April 2001 and 9 2002. A structure continuing to visit this site you agree to our use of fipronil a... Fipronil, fipronil termite bait the distance over which fipronil treatment on colonies of subterranean termite colonies of! Are among the most popular pesticides because it works by disrupting, and eventually disabling, ratio! Chemicals into the soil, you can also place termite bait directly into the soil been... Are the numbers of colonies 2001 and 9 April 2002 a stand alone treatment method Action of insecticides... And kills the whole nest locations and observed foraging areas of two colonies were! Foundation wall and positioned 2–6 m apart 2.91-fold greater with soldiers than with workers from poison... Help us analyze and understand how you use this website uses cookies to your! Injecting chemicals into the ground around the structures and in the Raleigh, NC, area throught.

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